Notice of Justice
Grade Range: K-12
Resource Type(s): Primary Source, Artifacts
Date Posted: 12/17/2010
Handwriting on paper attached to bamboo.
Emilio Aguinaldo’s address to the Philippine people, bearing his seal. The paper is attached to a woven bamboo board. It was found one morning hanging on a fence in the town of Bugasou, Panay, Philippine Islands.
Emilio Aguinaldo was a leader of the 1896 Philippine revolt against Spain. As a result of the peace treaty which ended the fighting, he was exiled to Hong Kong in exchange for money, which he used to purchase weapons to continue the rebellion. When the United States declared war on Spain in 1898, Aguinaldo saw the opportunity to further the cause of Philippine independence by allying with the Americans. After peace was made with Spain, he declared the Philippines independent and proclaimed himself president. The United States refused to recognize the Philippine Republic, and Aguinaldo as its president; in 1899, he declared war on the occupying forces. After he was captured by the Americans in 1901, he swore his allegiance to the United States and subsequently withdrew from public life.
Historical Thinking Standards (Grades 5-12)
Standards in History (Grades K-4)
United States History Standards (Grades 5-12)